Publications by the International Mortar

Dating project:


Hayen, Roald, Mark Van Strydonck, Elisabetta Boaretto, Alf Lindroos, Jan
Heinemeier, Åsa Ringbom, Sophie Hueglin, Danuta Michalska, Irka Hajdas,
Fabio Marzaoili, Francesco Maspero, Anna Galli, Gilberto Artioli, Christophe
Moreau, Pierre Guibert and Marta Caroselli,

Absolute Dating of Mortars Integrating Chemical and Physical Techniques to Characterize and Analysis and Select the Mortar sample, Proceedings of the 4th Historic Mortars Conference HMC 2016, 10th – 12th October Santorini, Greece.


see also

Van Strydonck, Mark, 2016 – 14C Dating of Mortar a Historic Review. Proceedings of the 4th Historic Mortars Conference HMC 2016 10th-12th October 2016, Santorini, Greece.

MVS C14 dating lime mortars HMC2016


Lindroos, Alf, Edwin Orsel, Edwin, Jan Heinemeier, Jan-Olof Lill, Radiocarbon Dating of Dutch Mortars Made from Burned Shell. RADIOCARBON, Vol 56, Nr 3, 2014, 9 959-968.

Ringbom, Åsa, The Story of Mortar Dating, from an Archaeological Point of View, Keynote lecture at the Third Mortardating Workshop in Padova, April 14-16. Ringbom, Åsa, abstract Padova

Ringbom, Å., Lindroos, A., Heinemeier, J., Sonck-Koota, Pia, 19 years of mortardating – learning from experience. Proceedings from the 7th Conference on 14C and Archaeology, Ghent April 2013, RADIOCARBON Vol 56, Nr 2, 2014, p 619–635, 2014, Ringbom et al. 19 years of mortar dating

January 2-5 participation with a poster in the Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, Chicago, Åsa Ringbom and John R. Hale, Recent Advances in Radiocarbon Dating of of Ancient Roman Mortar and Concrete. Poster Chicago 2014



Ringbom, Å., Heinemeier, J., Lindroos, A., Mörteldatering og Kirkearkaeologi. Aktuel Naturvidenskab 6, 2013, 30-34. Aktuel Naturvidenskab 6



Lindroos, Alf, Lior Regev, Markku Oinonen, Åsa Ringbom, Jan Heinemeier, 2012, 14C Dating of Fire-Damaged Mortars From Medieval Finland, RADIOCARBON Vol 54. Nr. 3-4 2012: 915-931  Lindroos et al. Radiocarbon 2012


Ringbom, Åsa, The Voice of the Åland Churches – New light on Art, Architecture and History, published by Ålands Museum, Form: April Kommunikation, Vaasa Graphics 2011, 160 pages, 188 images. ISBN 987-952-5614-43-8 (translation of Åländska kyrkor berättar from 2010). (Available via Adlibris). Download Chapter 3, The Åland Churches Project and the Necessity of Interdisciplinary Research. The Voice of the Åland Churches, Chapter 3

Ringbom, Åsa, Tvärvetenskap och Ålands kyrkor – äntligen klarnar kronologin.. Föredrag hållet vid Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens symposium Aktuell forskning den 24 maj 2010, Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Sphinx årsbok 2010-2011, 17-28.

Building Roma Eaterna. Current research on Roman Mortar and Concrete. Proceedings of the conference March 27-29 2008. Editors Åsa Ringbom and Robert L. Hohlfelder, Assistant editors Pia Sjöberg and Pia Sonck-Koota, Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 128 2011. Societas Scientiarum Fennica. 258 pages. ISBN 978-951-653-348-4.
The volume includes, among others, the following articles by the mortar dating team:
Ringbom Å, Heinemeier J, Lindroos A, Brock F. Mortar dating and roman pozzolana, results and interpretations. 187-208. Ringbom et al. BRA  bra_ringbom_et_al

Langley MM, Maloney SJ, Ringbom Å, Heinemeier J, Lindroos A. A Comparison of Dating Techniques at Torre de Palma, Portugal: Mortars and Ceramics, 242-256. bra_langley_et_al

Hodgins G, Lindroos A, Ringbom Å, Heinemeier J, Brock F. 14C Dating of Roman Mortars – Preliminary Tests Using Diluted Hydrochloric Acid Injected in Batches, 209-213. bra_hodgins_et_al

Lindroos A, Heinemeier J, Ringbom Å, Brock F, Sonck-Koota P, Pehkonen M, Suksi J. Problems in Radiocarbon Dating of Roman Pozzolana Mortars, 214-230. bra_lindroos_et_al

Ringbom, Åsa, Alf Lindroos, Jan Heinemeier and Kenneth Gustavsson, Dating Stone Churches in the Outer Åland Archipelago, in Archaeology and History of Churches in the Baltic Region, Symposium, June 8-12, 2010, Visby Sweden. Edited by Joakim Hansson and Heikki Ranta, Visby 2011, 141-170. Ringbom et al. visby 2011

Lindroos, Alf, Åsa Ringbom, Riikka Kaisti, Jan Heinemeier, Gregory Hodgins and Fiona Brock, The Oldest Parts of Turku Cathedral C-14 Chronology of Fire Damaged Mortars, in Archaeology and History of Churches in the Baltic Region, Symposium, June 8-12, 2010, Visby Sweden. Edited by Joakim Hansson and Heikki Ranta, Visby 2011, 108-121. A Lindroos et al. 2011


Heinemeier, Jan, Åsa Ringbom, Alf Lindroos, Árný E Sveinbjörnsdóttir: Successful AMS 14C Dating of Non-Hydraulic Lime Mortars from the Medieval Churches of the Åland Islands, Finland. RADIOCARBON, Vol 52, Nr 1, 2010: 171-204. Heinemeier-etal-2010-Radiocarbon-MortarAland

Ringbom, Åsa, Åländska kyrkor berättar. Nytt ljus på medeltida konst, arkitektur och historia, Vasa 2010 (160 pages, 188 images). Form: April Kommunikation, Vaasa Graphics 2010. ISBN 987-952-5614-34-3. (Available via Adlibris).


Ringbom, Å., Hale J., Heinemeier J., Lindroos A., Brock, F., Radiocarbon Dating of Mortar, Prizewinning poster presented at the American Institute of Archaeology, Annual Meeting Chicago 2008. Chicago poster 2008
Ranta, Heikki, Joakim Hansson, Alf Lindroos, Åsa Ringbom, Jan Heinemeier, Fiona Brock & Gregory Hodgins, Om dateringen av Gotlands medeltida kyrkor, hikuin 36, 2009, 85-100.

Ringbom, Åsa, Jan Heinemeier, Alf Lindroos and Árny Sveinbjörnsdôttír. Projektet Ålands kyrkor – rapport från en metodutveckling, hikuin 36, 2009, 129-158.


Lindroos, Alf,  Jan Heinemeier,  Åsa Ringbom,  Mats Braskén,  Árny Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Mortar Dating Using AMS 14C and Sequential Dissolution: Examples from Medieval, Non-Hydraulic Lime Mortars from the Åland Islands, SW Finland, RADIOCARBON, Vol. 49, Nr 1, 2007, p 47-67.Lindroos et al 2007


Ringbom Å., Hale J., Heinemeier J., Lindroos A. and Brock F. Mortar dating in Medieval and Classical archaeology. CHS (Construction History Society) Newsletter 73, 2006, 11-18.


Lindroos, Alf, Carbonate Phases in Historical Lime Mortars and Pozzolana Concrete: Implications for 14C Dating, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Åbo Akademi University, Diss. Åbo 2005.

Ringbom, Åsa & Christina Remmer, Ålands kyrkor, Volym III, Sund och Vårdö, Mariehamn 2005.


Hale, J., J. Heinemeier, L. Lancaster, A. Lindroos and Å. Ringbom, Dating Ancient Mortar, American Scientist, Volume 91, 2003: 130-137.

Ringbom, Åsa, Dolphins and mortar dating – Santa Costanza reconsidered, in Songs of Ossian, Festshrift in honour of professor Bo Ossian Lindberg, Taidehistoriallisia Tutkimuksia, 27, Konsthistoriska studier, Helsingfors, 2003, 22-42. Ringbom Dolphins Mortardating Santa Costanza 

Ringbom, Åsa, John Hale, Jan Heinemeier, Lynne Lancaster and Alf Lindroos, ”When did the Mortar Harden? A new method for dating buildings and other structures through AMS radiocarbon analysis”. Poster presented at the XVI International Congress of Classical Archaeology, The Associazione Internationale di Archeologia Classica, Harvard University August 24, 2003. HarvardPoster


Ringbom, Å. A. Lindroos, A. Sveinbjörnsdottir, L. Lancaster, J. Hale and Heinemeier J., AMS 14C dating of mortar, a method in progress for classical archaeology, AIAC news no 29/30. Guigno/Settembre 2001, Roma, 2001, 2-4.


Ringbom, Åsa och Christina Remmer, Ålands kyrkor, Volym II., Saltvik, Ekenäs 2000.

Ringbom, Å., K. Gustavsson, A. Lindroos, J. Heinemeier and Á. Sveinbjörnsdôttír, Mortar dating – a method with a potential for the future, Proceedings of the 2nd European Congress of Medieval studies of the Fédération Internatiole des Instituts d’ Ètudes Médievales, Barcelona, 1999.


v. Konow, T. and A. Lindroos, Dating of lime mortar – Preparation of the sample, a challenge for the geologist and the mineral chemist, Iskos 11, 1997,  208-213.

Heinemeier, Jan, Högne Jungner, Alf Lindroos, Åsa Ringbom, Thorborg von Konow och Niels Rud, .“AMS 14C dating of lime mortar”, in Beam interactions with materials and atoms, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section B, volume 123, Nos 1-4, March (II) 1997: 487-495.

Ringbom, Åsa, The churches of the Åland islands and 14C dating of mortar, Method and theory in Historical Archaeology . Papers of the Medieval Europe Brugge 1997, conference volume 10, 1997, 103-122.


Ringbom, Åsa & Christina Remmer, Ålands kyrkor, Volym I, Hammarland och Eckerö, Mariehamn 1995.



Other publications (e.g.):


Van Strydonck, Mark, 2016 – 14C Dating of Mortar a Historic Review. Proceedings of the 4th Historic Mortars Conference HMC 2016 10th-12th October 2016, Santorini, Greece.

MVS C14 dating lime mortars HMC2016


Michalska, D., 2014 -Radiocarbon dating of mortars. [In:] Geoscience in Archaeometry. Methods and case studies. Michalska and Szczepaniak (eds.), Wydawnictwo Naukowe Bogucki, Poznań: 147-158.


Marzaioli, F., Nonni, S., Passariello, I., Capano, M., Ricci, P., Lubritto, C., De Cesare, N., Eramo, G., Castillo, J.A,Q., Terrasi, F., Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of lime mortars: Methodological aspects and field study applications at CIRCE (Italy). NIMB: 294, 2013: 246-251.

Al-Bashaireh, K., Plaster and mortar radiocarbon dating of Nabatean and Islamic Structures, South Jordan, Archaeometry 55, 2 (2013) 329–354.Jedrejewska, H., Old Mortars in Poland. A New Method of Investigation, Studies in Conservation, 5, 4. 1960, 132-138.


Hayen, R., 2012. Radiocarbon dating of lime mortars in late medieval buildings in Belgium. On the accuracy of dating and mortar characterisation. 2nd international workshop on mortar radiocarbon dating.

Pesce, Giovanni L A, Ball, Richard J., Quarta, Gianluca, Calcagnile, Lucio, Identification, Extraction, and Preparation of Reliable Lime Samples for 14C Dating of Plasters and mortars with the “Pure Lime Lumps” Technique. RADIOCARBON, Vol 54, Nr 3–4, 2012: 933–942.

Ortega, L.A., Cruz Zuluaga, M.,  Alonso-Olazabal, A.,  Murelaga, X., Insausti, M., Ibañez-Etxeberria A., Historic Lime-Mortar 14C Dating of Santa Mariia la Real (Zarautz, Northern Spain): Extraction of Suitable Grain Size for Reliable 14C Dating. RADIOCARBON, 54, 2012: 23-36


Al-Bashaireh, Khaled, Gregory W.L. Hodgins, “AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Lime-Plaster from Petra-South Jordan”, Building Roma Eaterna. Current research on Roman Mortar and Concrete. Proceedings of the conference March 27-29 2008. Editors Åsa Ringbom and Robert L. Hohlfelder, Assistant editors Pia Sjöberg and Pia Sonck-Koota, Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 128 2011. Societas Scientiarum Fennica. 258 pages. ISBN 978-951-653-348-4..

Chu, V., Regev, L., Weiner, S., Boaretto , E., Differentiating between anthropogenic calcite in plaster, ash and natural calcite using infrared spectroscopy: implications in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35: 905-911.


Nawrocka, D., Michniewicz, J., 2010 – The Radiocarbon Dating of Mortars from Wielka Waga, The Great Scales Building in The Krakow Market Square. [In:] Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry. Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York: 517-527, ISBN 978-3-642-14677-0 e-ISBN 978-3-642-14678-7


Nawrocka, D., Czernik, J., Goslar, T., 2009 – 14C dating of carbonate mortars from Polish and Israeli sites. Radiocarbon, 51, 2: 857-866.

Goslar, T., Nawrocka, D., Czernik, J., 2009 – Foraminiferous limestone in 14C dating of mortar. Radiocarbon, 51, 3. 987-993.

Nawrocka, D., Goslar, T., Pazdur, A., 2009 – Historic mortars and plasters as a material for age determination. [In:] Bostenaru, D. M., Prikryl, R., Torok A., (eds): Materials, Technologies and Practice in Historic Heritage Structures. Springer: 180-192. ISBN: 978-90-481-2683-5.

Pesce, G.L.A., Quarta, G., Calcagnile, L., D’Elia, M., Cavaciocchi, P., Lastrico, C., Guastella, R., Radiocarbon dating of lumps from aerial lime mortars and plasters: methodological issues and results from the S. Nicolò of Capodimonte Church (Camogli, Genoa – Italy). RADIOCARBON, 51(2), 2009: 867-872.

Nawrocka D., Michniewicz J., Pawlyta J., Padzur A., 2005: Application of radiocarbon method for dating of lime mortars. Journal on Methods and Applications of Absolute Chronology. GEOCHRONOMETRIA, 24, 2005: 109-115.

Rech, J.A., New uses for old laboratory techniques: how radiocarbon dating on mortar and plasters could change the chronology of the ancient near east. Near,E.Archaeol.,67(4), 2004, 212–219.

Sonninen, E. and H. Jungner, An improvement in preparation of mortar for radiocarbon dating, Proceedings of the 17th International 14C conference, ed. I. Carmi and E. Boaretto. Radiocarbon 43, nr 2A, 2001, 271-273.

Heinemeier, J. and H. Jungner, C-14 datering af kalkmörtel, Arkeologiska udgraevninger i Danmark 1994, (in Danish with English translation), 1995, 23-40.

Van Strydonck, M.J.Y., K. Van der Borg, A.F.M., de Jong and E. Keppens, Radiocarbon dating of lime fractions and organic material from buildings, Radiocarbon 34, (3) 1992. 873-879.

Van Strydonck, M., and M. Dupas, The classification and dating of lime mortars by chemical analysis and radiocarbon dating: A review. In IInd Daye International Conference of prehistory, Vol II. Eds. W.H. Waldren, J.A. Ensenyat & R. C. Kennard (BAR Interantional Series, 574), 1991, 5-43.

Van Strydonck, M. and William Hl. Waldren, Radiocarbon Dating of Lime Burials, Pact 29. 1990, 403-413.

Gustavsson, K, P. Erämetsä, E. Sonninen and H. Jungner, Radiocarbon Dating of Mortar and Thermoluminescence Dating of Bricks from Åland, PACT 29, Strasbourg 1990, 203-212.

Van Strydonck, M., M. Dupas and E. Keppens, Isoptopic Fractionation of Oxygen and Carbon in Lime Mortar Under Natural Environmental Conditions, Radiocarbon 31, 1989, 610-618.

Sonninen, E. P. Erämetsä and H. Jungner, Dating of Mortar and Bricks, an Example from Finland, Archaeometry. Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium, ed. Y. Maniatis, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Tokyo 1989, 99-107.

Van Strydonck, M., M. Dupas, M. Dauchot-Dehon, C. Pachiaudi and J. Marechal, The influence of contaminating (fossil) carbonate and the variation of δ13C in mortar dating. In Proceedings, 12th International 14C conference, eds. M. Stuiver and W.H. Waldren, Radiocarbon 28, 1986, 702-710.

Pachaudi C., J. Marechal., M. Van Strydonck, M. Dupas and M. Dauchot-Dehon, Isotopic fractionation of carbon during CO2 absorption by mortar. International 14C conf. 12th proceedings, eds.  Stuiver M. and Kra.R.S. Radiocarbon 28, 2a, 1986, 691-697.

Sonninen, E., P. Erämetsä and H. Jungner. Dating bmortar and bricks from the Castle of Kastelholm, Iskos 5, 1985, 384-389.

Van Strydonck, M, M. Dupas and M Dauchot-Dehon, Radiocarbon dating of old mortars, in Mook W.G. and Waterbolk, H.R. (eds) 14C and Archaeology, Proceedings, PACT 8, 1983, 337-343.

Van Strydonck, M., M. Dupas , M. Dauchot.Dehon, C. Pachiaudi and J. Marechal; A further step in the radiocarbon dating of old mortars, Bulletin Van Het Kon. Inst. Voor het Kunstpatrimonium, XIX, 1983, 155,171.

Folk, R.L. and Valastro, S. Jr., Dating of lime mortar by 14C. In Radiocarbon Dating,  Proceedings of the 9th International Conference, Eds. R. Berger and H.E. Suess, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1979, 721-732.

Folk, R.L. and Valastro, S. Jr., Successful technique of dating of lime mortars by carbon-14, Journal of Field Archaeology 3, 1976, 203-208.

Folk, R.L. and Valastro, S. Jr., Radiocarbon Datings of Mortars at Stobi, Studies in the Antiquities of Stobi, Belgrade 2, 1975, 29-412.

Baxter, M.S., and A.Walton, Radiocarbon Datings of Mortar, Nature 225, 1970, 937-938.

Delibrias G. and J. Labeyrie, The dating of mortars by the carbon -14 method. In Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on 14C and tritium dating, Eds. R.M. Chatters and E.A. Olson. Washington D.C. Clearinghouse for Fed.Sci. & Tech. Inf., Natural Bur. Standards, U.S. Dept. Commerce, 1965, 344-347.

Stuiver M. and Smith C. S. Radiocarbon dating of ancient mortar and plaster, Proceedings of the 6th international conference on radiocarbon and tritium dating. Eds. R.M. Chatters and E.A. Olson, Washington D.C. Clearinghouse for Fed. Sci. &Tech. Infl. Natural Bur. Standards, U.S. Dept. Commerce, 1965: 338-343.

Labeyrie, J., and G. Delibrias, Dating of old mortars by the carbon-14 method. Nature 201, 1964, 742.