Publications by the International Mortar Dating project

(chronological order)

Ringbom, Åsa & Christina Remmer, Ålands kyrkor, Volym I, Hammarland och Eckerö, Mariehamn 1995.

v. Konow, T. and A. Lindroos, Dating of lime mortar – Preparation of the sample, a challenge for the geologist and the mineral chemist, Iskos 11, 1997,  208-213.

Heinemeier, Jan, Högne Jungner, Alf Lindroos, Åsa Ringbom, Thorborg von Konow och Niels Rud, .“AMS 14C dating of lime mortar”, in Beam interactions with materials and atoms, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section B, volume 123, Nos 1-4, March (II) 1997: 487-495.

Ringbom, Åsa, The churches of the Åland islands and 14C dating of mortar, Method and theory in Historical Archaeology . Papers of the Medieval Europe Brugge 1997, conference volume 10, 1997, 103-122.

Ringbom, Å., K. Gustavsson, A. Lindroos, J. Heinemeier and Á. Sveinbjörnsdôttír, Mortar dating – a method with a potential for the future, Proceedings of the 2nd European Congress of Medieval studies of the Fédération Internatiole des Instituts d’ Ètudes Médievales, Barcelona, 1999,

Ringbom, Åsa och Christina Remmer, Ålands kyrkor, Volym II., Saltvik, Ekenäs 2000.

Ringbom, Å. A. Lindroos, A. Sveinbjörnsdottir, L. Lancaster, J. Hale and Heinemeier J., AMS 14C dating of mortar, a method in progress for clasical archaeology, AIAC news no 29/30. Guigno/Settembre 2001, Roma, 2001, 2-4.

Hale, J., J. Heinemeier, L. Lancaster, A. Lindroos and Å. Ringbom, Dating Ancient Mortar, American Scientist, Volume 91, 2003: 130-137.

Ringbom, Åsa, Dolphins and mortar dating – Santa Costanza reconsidered, in Songs of Ossian, Festshrift in honour of professor Bo Ossian Lindberg, Taidehistoriallisia Tutkimuksia, 27, Konsthistoriska studier, Helsingfors, 2003, 22-42.

Lindroos, Alf, Carbonate Phases in Historical Lime Mortars and Pozzolana Concrete: Implications for 14C Dating, Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Åbo Akademi University, Diss. Åbo 2005.

Ringbom, Åsa & Christina Remmer, Ålands kyrkor, Volym III, Sund och Vårdö, Mariehamn 2005.

Ringbom Å., Hale J., Heinemeier J., Lindroos A. and Brock F. Mortar dating in Medieval and Classical archaeology. CHS (Construction History Society) Newsletter 73, 2006, 11-18.

Lindroos, Alf, Åsa Ringbom, Jan Heinemeier, and Á. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, ”Mortar dating using AMS 14C and sequential dissolution: Examples from Medieval, non-hydraulic lime mortars from the Åland Islands, SW Finland”, Radiocarbon,Volume 49, Nr 1 2007, 47-67.
Ranta, Heikki, Joakim Hansson, Alf Lindroos, Åsa Ringbom, Jan Heinemeier, Fiona Brock & Gregory Hodgins, Om dateringen av Gotlands medeltida kyrkor, hikuin 36, 2009, 85-100.

Ringbom, Åsa, Jan Heinemeier, Alf Lindroos and Árny Sveinbjörnsdôttír. Projektet Ålands kyrkor – rapport från en metodutveckling, hikuin 36, 2009, 129-158.

Heinemeier, Jan, Åsa Ringbom, Alf Lindroos & Árny E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir: Successful AMS 14C dating of non-hydaulic lime mortars from the medieval churches of the Åland Islands, Finland, Radiocarbon, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2010: 171-204.Heinemeier et al Radiocarbon 2010

Ringbom, Åsa, Åländska kyrkor berättar. Nytt ljus på medeltida konst, arkitektur och historia, Mariehamn 2010, 160 pages. (available on Adlibris).

Building Roma Eaterna. Current research on Roman Mortar and Concrete. Proceedings of the conference March 27-29 2008. Editors Åsa Ringbom and Robert L. Hohlfelder, Assistant editors Pia Sjöberg and Pia Sonck-Koota, Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 128 2011. Societas Scientiarum Fennica. 258 pages. ISBN 978-951-653-348-4.
The volume includes the following articles by the Mortar Dating International team:

Ringbom Å, Heinemeier J, Lindroos A, Brock F. Mortar dating and roman pozzolana, results and interpretations. 187-208. bra_ringbom_article

Langley MM, Maloney SJ, Ringbom Å, Heinemeier J, Lindroos A. A Comparison of Dating Techniques at Torre de Palma, Portugal: Mortars and Ceramics, 242-256.langley article

Hodgins G, Lindroos A, Ringbom Å, Heinemeier J, Brock F. 14C Dating of Roman Mortars – Preliminary Tests Using Diluted Hydrochloric Acid Injected in Batches, 209-213.bra_hodgins article

Lindroos A, Heinemeier J, Ringbom Å, Brock F, Sonck-Koota P, Pehkonen M, Suksi J. Problems in Radiocarbon Dating of Roman Pozzolana Mortars, 214-230.bra_lindroos

Al-Bashaireh, K., Hodgins, G.W.L. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Lime-Plaster from Petra-South Jordan.


Ringbom, Åsa, Alf Lindroos, Jan Heinemeier and Kenneth Gustavsson, Dating Stone Churches in the Outer Åland Archipelago, Archaeology and History of Churches in the Baltic Region, Symposium, June 8-12, 2010, Visby. Edited by Joakim Hansson and Heikki Ranta, Visby 2011, 141- 170.Ringbom article Visby 2010

Lindroos, Alf. Åsa Ringbom, Riikka Kaisti, Jan Heinemeier, Gregory Hodgins and Fiona Brock, The oldest parts of the Turku cathedral. C-14 chronology of fire damaged mortars. Archaeology and History of Churches in the Baltic Region, Symposium, June 8-12, 2010, Visby. Edited by Joakim Hansson and Heikki Ranta, Visby 2011, 108-121.Lindroos article Visby 2010

Sjöberg, Pia. Alf Lindroos, Åsa Ringbom, Jan Heinemeier, Pia Sonck-Koota, Gregory Hodgins, Fiona Brock, Radiocarbon dating of the medieval churches in Pargas and Nagu. Archaeology and History of Churches in the Baltic Region, Symposium, June 8-12, 2010, Visby. Edited by Joakim Hansson and Heikki Ranta, Visby 2011,  171-195.  sjöberg article: articles_visby_2010

Ringbom, Åsa, The Voice of the Åland Churches – New light on Art, Architecture and History, published by Ålands Museum, Form: April Kommunikation, Vaasa Graphics 2011, 160 pages. ISBN 987-952-5614-43-8 (translation of Åländska kyrkor berättar from 2010). (available on Adlibris).


Other publications (e.g.):

Jedrejewska, H., Old Mortars in Poland. A New Method of Investigation, Studies in Conservation, 5, 4. 1960, 132-138.

Labeyrie, J., and G. Delibrias, Dating of old mortars by the carbon-14 method. Nature 201, 1964, 742.

Delibrias G. and J. Labeyrie, The dating of mortars by the carbon -14 method. In Proceedings from the 6th International Conference on 14C and tritium dating, Eds. R.M. Chatters and E.A. Olson. Washington D.C. Clearinghouse for Fed.Sci. & Tech. Inf., Natural Bur. Standards, U.S. Dept. Commerce, 1965, 344-347.

Stuiver M. and Smith C. S. Radiocarbon dating of ancient mortar and plaster, Proceedings of the 6th international conference on radiocarbon and tritium dating. Eds. R.M. Chatters and E.A. Olson, Washington D.C. Clearinghouse for Fed. Sci. &Tech. Infl. Natural Bur. Standards, U.S. Dept. Commerce, 1965, 338-343.

Baxter, M.S., and A.Walton, Radiocarbon Datings of Mortar, Nature 225, 1970, 937-938.

Folk, R.L. and Valastro, S. Jr., Radiocarbon Datings of Mortars at Stobi, Studies in the Antiquities of Stobi, Belgrade 2, 1975, 29-412.

Folk, R.L. and Valastro, S. Jr., Successful technique of dating of lime mortars by carbon-14, Journal of Field Archaeology 3, 1976, 203-208.

Folk, R.L. and Valastro, S. Jr., Dating of lime mortar by 14C. In Radiocarbon Dating,  Proceedings of the 9th International Conference, Eds. R. Berger and H.E. Suess, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1979, 721-732.

Van Strydonck, M, M. Dupas and M Dauchot-Dehon, Radiocarbon dating of old mortars, in Mook W.G. and Waterbolk, H.R. (eds) 14C and Archaeology, Proceedings, PACT 8, 1983, 337-343.

Van Strydonck, M., M. Dupas , M. Dauchot.Dehon, C. Pachiaudi and J. Marechal; A further step in the radiocarbon dating of old mortars, Bulletin Van Het Kon. Inst. Voor het Kunstpatrimonium, XIX, 1983, 155,171.

Sonninen, E., P. Erämetsä and H. Jungner. Dating bmortar and bricks from the Castle of Kastelholm, Iskos 5, 1985, 384-389.

Van Strydonck, M., M. Dupas, M. Dauchot-Dehon, C. Pachiaudi and J. Marechal, The influence of contaminating (fossil) carbonate and the variation of δ13C in mortar dating. In Proceedings, 12th International 14C conference, eds. M. Stuiver and W.H. Waldren, Radiocarbon 28, 1986, 702-710.

Pachaudi C., J. Marechal., M. Van Strydonck, M. Dupas and M. Dauchot-Dehon, Isotopic fractionation of carbon during CO2 absorption by mortar. International 14C conf. 12th proceedings, eds.  Stuiver M. and Kra.R.S. Radiocarbon 28, 2a, 1986, 691-697.

Van Strydonck, M., M. Dupas and E. Keppens, Isoptopic Fractionation of Oxygen and Carbon in Lime Mortar Under Natural Environmental Conditions, Radiocarbon 31, 1989, 610-618.

Sonninen, E. P. Erämetsä and H. Jungner, Dating of Mortar and Bricks, an Example from Finland, Archaeometry. Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium, ed. Y. Maniatis, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Tokyo 1989, 99-107.

Van Strydonck, M. and William Hl. Waldren, Radiocarbon Dating of Lime Burials, Pact 29. 1990, 403-413.

Gustavsson, K, P. Erämetsä, E. Sonninen and H. Jungner, Radiocarbon Dating of Mortar and Thermoluminescence Dating of Bricks from Åland, PACT 29, Strasbourg 1990, 203-212.

Van Strydonck, M., and M. Dupas, The classification and dating of lime mortars by chemical analysis and radiocarbon dating: A review. In IInd Daye International Conference of prehistory, Vol II. Eds. W.H. Waldren, J.A. Ensenyat & R. C. Kennard (BAR Interantional Series, 574), 1991, 5-43.

Van Strydonck, M.J.Y., K. Van der Borg, A.F.M., de Jong and E. Keppens, Radiocarbon dating of lime fractions and organic material from buildings, Radiocarbon 34, (3) 1992. 873-879.

Heinemeier, J. and H. Jungner, C-14 datering af kalkmörtel, Arkeologiska udgraevninger i Danmark 1994, (in Danish with English translation), 1995, 23-40.

Sonninen, E. and H. Jungner, An improvement in preparation of mortar for radiocarbon dating, Proceedings of the 17th International 14C conference, ed. I. Carmi and E. Boaretto. Radiocarbon 43, nr 2A, 2001, 271-273.

Al-Bashaireh, K. Plaster and Mortar Radiocarbon Dating of Nabatean and Islamic Structurs, South Jordan. Article first published online: 30 March 2012| DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2012.00677.x